You are not the only one using your designs. Every day we use graphic communication design from reading letters which have come through the post, or the newspaper in the morning, to reading and using information at work, to travelling and navigating in the environment. How can we include as many people as possible when designing graphic communication and information, and how do we not unnecessarily exclude people? If your product or information is going to be used by many people and a diverse range of people, how do we design for the broadest range of people, so our designs work well and for the maximum amount of people? What are the requirements of people who have some kind impairment or disability? What happens as we age, how does ageing affect our ability to use and process information? As designers we have a duty to make sure our designs work well. I will not attempt to build user personas about people or make pictures stereotypically. Instead, I will try and delve into data we have on people, and the issues that arise.
Every design project presents a problem or challenge that involves helping other people understand something (Cousins, 2017).
Who Do Designers Design For?
Some people think design is a purely artistic job, but there is much more consciously involved and required, and that operates under the surface. As graphic communication and information designers, most of the time, we are designing for a wide range of people. We could be designing a notice specifically for one person, or we could be designing a web form for the public to use in which the range of people using the item could be very wide and unpredictable.
Who are we designing for? I am sure you have heard of ‘target audience’ when working on design projects and from client meetings. Do we design for a specific type of people or a wide range? If we are designing for a wide range, what does a wide range of people look like, what are their make-ups, abilities and challenges? What does the population and make-up of your country look like? Thankfully the days when the designer designs purely for themselves are fast disappearing. Much more information is available and written about people and the challenges they face using design. The term ‘user experience’ has gained great expose and interest over recent years and seems to have taken over the term ‘information design’ in which concerns of clarity, usability and people seemed first to get involved with graphic design practice.
Why Bother With Accessible and Usable Graphic Communication Design?
We have a lot more information about accessibility and usability and about people today than in previous times. Accessibility and usability issues are continually evolving, and as people have to learn new systems, platforms and technologies. We have gone from clay tablets to Egyptian papyrus rolls, to Chinese books, to the codex, to medieval books, to book printing, to, currently, screens. Although Josef Müller-Brockmann (a notable Swiss graphic communication designer working in the 1930s–1990s) never labelled his work as accessible, he sought to make graphic communication design clear and above all objective (rather than subjective and about personal expression).
It is essential for information, design and communication to be accessible and usable to different types of people, so we do not exclude anyone. Not every person and user is highly abled, expert and knowledgeable (what typical designers think). The following is an edited extract from an article by Tom Graham & André Gonçalves (Graham & Gonçalves, 2017): ‘as a designer, you care and should about users – call it empathy in design or call it being a human’.
It is simple – by addressing different people’s needs, setups and requirements, your designs will address the issues they face. If your design does that, it will work better for them. The more people you design and cater for, the better your designs will be. By making information and communication accessible to as many people as possible, they are given a fair chance of being able to use the information. You also reach and communicate with more people – the more people you reach, the more potential people you inform, communicate with or increase your customer base range. We can no longer ignore people other than the able designer or ourselves. How would we like it if we gained an impairment, disability or were not included and catered for with the design?
Information of People and Related Issues
Here are some statistics on groups of the population (demographics), different types of people, and related issues. I hope you will find this information useful when designing and envisaging for people.
Children, 4–12 years old
We define children as aged between 4–12 years old. There are also 3 different distinctions of children’s age: young (3–5 years), mid-range (6–8 years) and older (9–12 years).
- 534 million people (8.69%) in the world are children aged 5–9. 1 person in 11 people worldwide is aged 5–9 years old (World Health Organisation, 2001).
- 1,278,982.063 billion people (16.93%) are aged 5–14 years old in 2017 worldwide. The world population in 2017 was 7,550,262.101 billion (United Nations, 2017).
Children in the UK in 2016 aged 5–16 now use the internet for an average of 3 hours a day and watch TV for 2.1 hours (Child Wise, 2016). Does this mean children are very knowledgeable and skilful when using websites and information online? Are they better and quicker at solving technology problems? From usability testing, children are slow typists. They are also acutely aware of age differences and do not like being labelled as young, immature or even as children (Nielsen, 2010).
Different people and different age groups often have different needs and tastes. A child is likely to have different tastes than an older adult. Technology seems not to intimidate children as much as older people. Do children want things which are more fun and entertaining, when adults are looking for specific information and are willing to invest more time? How do colours affect the meaning and understanding of communication for this age group? In a study of 60 children (30 girls, 30 boys), children had positive reactions to bright colours (e.g., pink, blue, red) and negative emotions for dark colours (e.g., brown, black, grey) (Boyatzis & Varghese, 1994). This age group are likely to have a low reading level and low/developing literacy. Children are also quite susceptible to advertising, more so that adults. Although it is unlikely children will have a credit card, it will be the parents ordering the product or service, how does the design or information support this?
Adults, in general, are goal-oriented and tend to visit websites with explicit objectives (relying on search more than discovery), and they are usually more accustomed to (and forgiving of) quirks or problems in the user experience (Six Revisions, 2011), whereas children are opposite.
Six revisions mentions ‘Ten years ago; the average ten-year-old would have quite limited computer skills; this is no longer the case. Through early interaction with the web, children as young as five and six (even younger) are gaining rudimentary experience with devices and websites’ (Six Revisions, 2011).
What might designing for children involve?: ‘It has to be bright, engaging and easy to use,’ says web and graphic designer Drew Elrick. ‘When designing a website for kids, you want to appeal to the senses,’ says Carly Stunder, director of website and graphic design at Miles Technologies. Carly Stunder raises the following issues: bright colors (happy colours) create a positive mood. Photos of happy kids, engaging cartoons and exciting imagery are sure to keep kids engaged. You also need to keep an eye on the different age ranges, levels and abilities of kids: children aged between 3–5 years old enjoy clean colors, interesting characters and a very minimal amount of text. Children aged a bit older 9–12 years old read more and can handle more text content (Elrick, 2016).
Teenagers, 13–19 years old
We define teenagers as aged between 13–19 years old.
- 596,816.289 million people (7.9%) are aged between 15–19 years old in 2017 worldwide, the world population in 2017 was 7,550,262.101 billion (United Nations, 2017).
- In 2012, the U.S. population was approximately 309 million. About 20.6 million, or 6.6%, were children in the 10–14 age range, and 21.2 million, or 6.9%, are in the 15–19 age range (United States Census Bureau, 2012). So that is about 13% of people in the U.S. in 2012 were aged 10–19 years old.
Different people and different age groups often have different needs and tastes. A teenager is likely to have different tastes than an older adult. Teenagers usually have strong and firm ideas about brands (like clothing or products) and what they mean to them and other people.
Usability testing has shown that teenagers have dramatically lower levels of patience than adults. Teenagers do not like to read a lot on the web, and nothing deters younger audiences more than a cluttered screen full of text (Loranger & Nielsen, 2013).
Research shows that the major difference between older adults, young adults and children is that teenagers are more socially focused. While adults tend to use technology and information to achieve set goals, teens are more interested in interacting socially and being heard (Six Revisions, 2011).
General people, 20–45 years old
We define general people as aged between 20–45 years old, who do not have any other impairments or disabilities.
- 2,788,121.887 billion people (36.92%) were aged between 25–44 years old in 2017 worldwide. The world population in 2017 was 7,550,262.101 billion (United Nations, 2017).
- 81% (56.7 million people) of people in 2010 in the USA had no form of disability. (United States Census Bureau, 2012).
- About 17% (11 million people) of people in the UK in 2014 were classed as disabled with a limiting long-term illness, impairment or disability. (GOV UK, 2014).
- The number of people in 2014 in the UK aged between 20–44 years old (males and females combined) is 21,447,534 (33.2%) (Office for National Statistics, 2016).
Have you ever been confused because something is communicated or designed not clear enough, resulting in giving you trouble understanding? Have you ever felt more stressed than usual because you cannot achieve something which should be relatively easy or straightforward to do? Have you ever been charged for something because you failed to understand the terms and conditions or because it was misleading? Ever felt annoyed by design not giving you what you want? Have you ever not engaged with something because of how it looks? These are all issues to do with the design not working well. In a recent paper by me titled Small Print In Graphic Communication And Information Design: A Discussion Of Issues And Interactions (Bohm, 2017) I explored issues to do with small print in graphic communication design. You might think issues to do with small print are not important, but it is often a source of bad practice and routinely causes problems for people.
People not only want to look at something appealing and beautiful but they equally want to be able to achieve things when using the graphic communication. They want to use the graphic communication to do something or find specific information usually within a short amount of time. Beauty or aesthetics does not have to be sacrificed in relation to concerns of accessibility or usability.
In a study by Jakob Nielsen the younger users in our control group (of testing a website) were twice as likely as older users to try more and different methods – such as site search, contextual help, or online chat – to find the answers to their questions or to complete tasks. Whereas 45% of senior citizens showed behaviours that indicated they did not try new things, were cautious to explore further or to try alternative options. For example, when they failed in their first attempt at a task, some seniors were hesitant to try alternate paths (Nielsen, 2013).
Middle-aged adults, 45–59 years old
Middle-aged adults are 45–59 year olds who do not have any other impairments or disabilities.
- 1,246,154.578 billion people (16.5%) were aged between 45–59 years old in 2017 worldwide. The world population in 2017 was 7,550,262.101 billion (United Nations, 2017).
- Due to improvements in lifestyle, 28% of the world’s population between the years of 2000–2025 will be aged 45 and older (World Health Organisation, 2001).
- Three common conditions of ageing eyesight are the loss of light, inability to focus, and visual field loss (Pettengill, 2014). Reduced contrast sensitivity and colour perception also occur.
Everyone encounters issues no matter how expert or able you are. This age range of people is most likely to have the most amount of money to spend. Common usability statements would be: ‘it looks great, but I cannot find what I am looking for’. ‘I cannot proceed because the website form is not letting me for a reason which I do not understand’. ‘I do not understand but there is nowhere to find out how I can get help, so I am going to have to contact them to inquire further’. People in this age range are likely to have built up barriers against advertising and may just not engage with most of it, or reject it.
Older adults, 60 years old+
Older adults are aged 60+ who are more prone to developing impairments or disabilities.
- 962,263.476 million people (12.74%) were aged 60+ years old in 2017 worldwide. The world population in 2017 was 7,550,262.101 billion (United Nations, 2017).
- The number of people in the UK who are elderly is increasing, and we are living longer, the percentage of the population aged 65 and over increased from 15% in 1984 to 16% in 2009, an increase of 1.7 million people. This trend is projected to continue. By 2034, 23% of the UK population is projected to be aged 65 and over (Office for National Statistics, 2010). Women born in 2030 are expected to live until they are 85.3 years, and men until 82.5 years old (Vasilis et al., 2017).
- From 2000 until 2050, the world’s population aged 60 and over will more than triple from 600 million to 2 billion (World Health Organisation, 2011).
- Three common conditions of ageing eyesight are the loss of light, inability to focus, and visual field loss (Pettengill, 2014). Reduced contrast sensitivity and colour perception also occur.
- About a third of people who are 60 or older have some hearing loss (WebMD, 2017).
A loud environment can impair hearing. This is especially true for people who are ageing or people who are within a specifically loud situation like for instance trying to talk to someone in a shop with loud music playing from the shop in the background. Jakob Nielsen points out ‘Although fast response times are important for all users, they’re particularly crucial for seniors, who are more likely to forget things if tasks take too long’ (Nielsen, 2013).
With age, we lose muscle tissue and our muscles become more rigid and less toned which results in decreased strength and stamina, and more fatigue. Our bones also decrease in density, which can lead to an increased chance of fractures (WebMD, 2017) and you may even become shorter in height. People who are ageing might also not be able to hold things as steadily as they once could or be as physically agile and dexterous as in previous years.
Tastes change. Style comes in and out of fashion. For many people, the ultimate aspiration for style is often that of when they were in their late teens or twenties. Each generation (young, middle-aged, elderly) will have developed different sets of technological skills, knowledge and experience (Keates & Clarkson, 2004). Technology seems to intimidate older adults more than younger people.
Memory can decrease which results in forgetting things. Information processing can slow as we get older and multitasking can become more challenging (WebMD, 2017).
The elderly are living longer and are more active than ever before. In sport, we can note that more and more sportswomen and men who are ageing (who maybe should have retired, and who would have retired years ago) are still right at the top sport, Phil Taylor (aged 56) in darts, is an example who still dominates the sport today.
As we get older do we blame ourselves more for the problems we have when using information, or do we question/challenge more the author of the information and communication? Are older people more likely to complain and question the content, more so than younger people? Do older adults value familiarity and reliability over new and unknown products and services? When users had problems, seniors blamed themselves 90% of the time, compared to 58% of younger users (Nielsen, 2013). Older adults also may be less able to change their long-held opinions to accept new information; a skill scientists call cognitive flexibility. Not all cognitive abilities decline with age. For example, most older adults maintain ‘crystallized intelligence’, the knowledge and skills accumulated over a lifetime. Past experiences are also part of crystallised intelligence. These experiences may help older people make decisions without conscious deliberation of all the details and alternatives. Years of experience provide references to help older adults identify their best choices and eliminate the rest. Alterations to learning and memory may affect an older reader’s ability to absorb content, and the way information is presented may need to accommodate the cognitive and physical changes that often accompany old age (National Institute on Aging, 2017).
From the book Countering design exclusion by Simeon Keates and John Clarkson (Keates & Clarkson, 2004) they define three capability classifications:
- Motion capability – reach and stretch, locomotion and dexterity.
- Sensory capability – vision and hearing.
- Cognitive capability – communication and intellectual function.
From the data graphs they show on pages 182–205 it is clear that with ageing comes more incurred impairments and disabilities, as we age we get more problems and issues. There are three exceptions though: cognitive capability, communication capability and intellectual capability.
It is essential to not over stereotype. Let me provides some examples: some older adults can open a pickle jar, but cannot remember where the bathroom is. Others are very sharp in mind but cannot move anymore (van der Waarde, 2017).
Different people and different age groups often have different needs and tastes. An older adult is likely to have different tastes than a younger one. Time takes its toll as we get older. It will happen to you, too, which is one reason – besides business gains – that everybody should care about designing for seniors (Nielsen, 2013).
Dyslexia is a neurologically-based, often familial disorder which interferes with the acquisition and processing of language. Varying in degrees of severity, it is manifested by difficulties in receptive and expressive language, including phonological processing, in reading, writing, spelling, handwriting, and sometimes arithmetic/numeracy (Bright Solutions for Dyslexia, 2010).
- 1 in 10 people worldwide show some signs of dyslexia (528 million people, 10%) (Pennington, 1991).
Typeface designers and graphic communication designers have in recent years tried to design typefaces/fonts for people with dyslexia. While they cannot cure dyslexia, they can often help. Acetate coloured overlays on top of information can also help people with dyslexia process and use information. Designers have even started to produce guidelines and recommendations for how to write, layout and illustrate graphical information best for people with dyslexia.
Refractive errors (nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism and presbyopia) account for 43% of visual impairments, cataracts for 33% and glaucoma for 2%. and colour-blindness affects approximately 4.5% of the population (World Health Organisation, 2017).
- 253 million people (3.35%) have a vision impairment (World Health Organization, 2017) the world population in 2017 was 7,550,262.101 billion (United Nations, 2017).
- 1 in 30 people in the UK has some visual impairment. In 2008 there were an estimated 1.8 million people (30%) living in the UK with some visual impairment (moderate, severe or total blindness) (Access Economics, 2009).
- 1 person in 6 Americans (17%), 45 years of age or older, representing 16.5 million middle-aged and older adults, report some form of vision impairment even when wearing glasses or contact lenses (The Lighthouse Inc., 1995).
The 1.8 million people with a sight problem in the United Kingdom have varying degrees of sight loss, ranging from those who have no light perception at all (total blindness), to those who have a sight loss which is uncorrectable by aids such as glasses, medication or surgery. They encounter extra difficulty reading small print (like on food packaging, statements or bills, and in newspapers) as well as text at a distance in the environment like road signs. People with vision impairments may not be able to recognize letters normally due to similarity of form (such as the capital I (i), lowercase l (el), number 1) as stated by Bohm (2018) in Letter and symbol misrecognition in highly legible typefaces for general, children, dyslexic, visually impaired and ageing readers [2018 third edition). Similarly they maybe be unable to see finer details such as underline/hypertext link rules, fine details in graphs and graphics, or superscripts/subscripts in texts. The vision impairment can be so severe that the person has to use an aid: such as a magnifying device or screen reader software when using the computer. The person maybe also want to zoom into the webpage, in which case the design of the website will need to accommodate the increase in size of the elements and will need to allow reflowing accordingly.
Most people who have colour blindness can see things as clearly as other people but they unable to fully ‘see’ red, green or blue light.
- Colour blindness (colour vision deficiency, or CVD) affects approximately 1 in 12 men (8%) and 1 in 200 women (0.5%) in the world.
- In Britain, this means that there are approximately 2.7 million colour blind people (about 4.5% of the entire population), most of whom are male (Colour Blind Awareness, 2016).
Red can appear as dark green; green can appear as light blue and blue can look like a much darker blue or black. Using text and coloured backgrounds with combinations such as red text on top of a dark green background is problematic. Also, light green text on top of a light blue background (and vice-versa) is going to cause problems. Frequently, shoes or clothing websites use just colour swatches to signal what colour you would like the item in. It is better to use a colour swatch with a text label (Graham & Gonçalves, 2017).
Although the word ‘arthritis’ means joint inflammation, the term is used to describe around 200 rheumatic diseases and conditions that affect joints, the tissues that surround the joint, and other connective tissue. Rheumatic conditions are typically characterized by pain, aching, stiffness and swelling in and around one or more joints (Nichols, 2017).
- In the U.S. 1 in 4 people (25%) aged 18+ suffer from arthritis (Barbour, 2017). Arthritis affects 1 in 4 people (25%, over 120 million people) of all people in the European Union (EULAR, 2017).
- In 2010–2012, 52.5 million adults in the U.S. (22.7% of all adults) had doctor-diagnosed arthritis, and 22.7 million (9.8%) had arthritis-attributable activity limitation (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013). Arthritis affects about 1 in 4 adults (adults are classed as 18+ years old in this study) (Barbour, 2017).
- Arthritis is more common among adults aged 65 years or older, but people of all ages (including children) can be affected.
Arthritis can impair a person’s ability to perform everyday tasks such as using a computer, opening packaging or operating a mobile telephone. Are the hyperlinks or buttons tightly compact which make it difficult to click or tap? Should more space regarding size be given to these kinds of items?
Text and Numerical Literacy
Literacy refers to the ability to read and write.
- 14.7% of people worldwide are illiterate. The global literacy rate for all people aged 15 and above is 86.3%. The rate varies throughout the world with developed nations having a rate of 99.2% (2013); Oceania having 71.3%; South and West Asia had 70.2% (2015) and sub-Saharan Africa at 64.0% (2015) (UNESCO, 2015).
- Over 75% of the world’s 781 million illiterate adults are found in South Asia, West Asia and sub-Saharan Africa and women represent almost two-thirds of all illiterate adults globally (Wikipedia, 2017).
- 1 in 6 people in England (16%, 5.2 million adults) are classified at Entry level 3 or below (this means their literacy is below the level expected of an eleven-year-old) (Department for Education and Skills, 2003).
If people or the users of your designed item cannot understand the text, they will not be able to comprehend the information thoroughly and may reject what is being said or what you are communicating, or they might seek help via telephone or other sources which could cause for more resource on the client’s behalf. If numerical data is not explained enough, people will not be able to see how you have arrived at the numerical values.
Digital literacy is the knowledge, skills, and behaviours used in a broad range of digital devices such as smartphones, tablets, laptops and desktop PCs.
- The number of smartphone users in 2017 was 2.32 billion (30%) (Statista, 2016) the total population in 2017 was 7.55 billion. (United Nations, 2017).
- The number of internet users in 2016 was 3.42 billion (45%) (Internet Live Stats, 2017) the total population in 2016 was 7.46 billion (United Nations, 2017).
- In 2011, the EU Kids Online conducted a study that examined the number of time children in Europe spent on the computer. It was found that roughly 85% of European children use a computer without the supervision of a teacher or parent, showing that these children have acquired some form of digital literacy (Matyjas, 2015).
- 12 million adults (25%) in the UK are incapable of completing five basic online tasks (Arnett, 2015).
- 5.9 million adults (11%) in the UK have never used the internet (Office for National Statistics, 2015).
Many children now grow up using new technology and computers, whereas adults today in 2017 would not have grown using the same or even similar (regarding complexity) technology. The more up-to-date and experience someone is using technology the better, and it is more likely that he or she will be able to achieve what they are trying to do. A definite option could be finding a text extract from and article’s website for a quotation from someone they are trying to find on an article website. If the person is not used to recognising the typical magnifier icon, they may not be able to activate the search box. There are also many other instances of mainstream websites using icons purely to communicate when an icon and text explanation would be far more usable. Is it obvious what is a hyperlink or button which can be clicked or tapped to bring up a new section or information?
People’s opinions, skills and wants will be tempered by past experiences. What people want will be derived from their knowledge of existing and previous products. This is very useful when re-designing a current product, such as a kettle, as very pertinent comments and opinions can be obtained. However, when considering the design of radical new technology, the usefulness of the feedback will potentially be restricted by the ability of the participants to understand the potential of the new technology. Many older users have different educational backgrounds to younger ones. For example, they will be familiar with the concepts of mathematical logarithm tables and slide rules, but not necessarily calculators and computers, whereas for younger people the reverse is almost certainly true (Keates, & Clarkson, 2004).
There is also the issue of the educational level of people. Have they gained qualifications at school, college and university? If so they may be able to handle concepts and information better than someone who has not. They may be able to process written and visual information better. However, this is not always the case, especially regarding processing concepts, what they do for a job could also be a factor in how they approach graphic communication design.
Prior Experience (Knowledge Level)
We can define 3 level classifications of knowledge people have about a thing:
If the person has expert knowledge about a subject or issue, they may be able to understand more of the information, solve the problem more quickly or process better the requirements of what they are being asked to do. If the majority of users are amateurs there may be a great deal of information they might not be able to comprehend alone or may require assistance with. They also might not have the general level of the skills needed to complete tasks.
I am considered to have expert computer skills and even design web pages. When using a very popular comparison website for air flights recently, the list of results at the bottom of pages only allowed me to go through pages – 1 page to the left or right at a time. It did not enable me to skip say three pages at a time. This was very frustrating because I was trying to get to specific departure time. So after deciding, I was getting nowhere I studied the webpage for quite a while longer, I noticed on the left-hand side of the webpage a slider option for outbound and return departure times. Have you started to use slider devices on websites yet around the year 2017? The use of sliders options on sites is a relatively new feature, and I would highly suspect non-expert people even to acknowledge or know how to use this device. I felt even as an expert user that I had done well and used a website slider device (which was far from obvious) for the first time.
Some psychological issues are worth mentioning.
If people are tired, is the design clear enough and appealing enough to sustain being used or do they get bored and frustrated when using the item? They may even decide to not even engage with the issue because they are too tired. Alternatively, the design may be so difficult to use they feel they cannot use as much as they would like to, like a complex, poorly designed boring academic book which drains the student late at night while they are studying for an exam. Does the item need to have a particular notice to warn against using the item when tired? When people are tired, they tend to make more mistakes and have less time to care. Can they quickly find what they are looking for?
How motivated are people to use your design? Do you need to design or communicate in a way to sustain and improve motivation levels? Is there a standard perception around the item which people commonly perceive the item as boring and dull, for instance, lengthy legal directives or laws. Could adding a progress indicator be beneficial?
Stress can make people work and behave in different and unusual manners; they may rush when using the item or respond more abruptly.
We all have used items under time pressure when you just want to complete and get done what you are trying to achieve with the least amount of hassle and fuss. People often forget necessary things because they are so preoccupied and not in a general mindset. They block out other unimportant concerns for the most pressing. Under time pressure, people scan and skip information more frequently.
How does appeal affect us? What about when we decide to go to a restaurant on the spur of the moment? How does the restaurant’s signs outside and overall corporate identity and image affect us as we decide if it somewhere we would like to go? Does the item communicate credibly and trustworthiness?
The Designers’ or Clients’ Objectives For the Success of the Design Project
From the book Countering design exclusion by Simeon Keates and John Clarkson (Keates & Clarkson, 2004): ‘Designers typically design for themselves, unless explicitly directed to do otherwise. Consequently, the default user shares the skills, knowledge and functional capability profile of the designer. When considering designing inclusively, this is unlikely to be a satisfactory description of the users’. Designers are usually highly able, flexible, able to solve problems quickly and are equipped with expert knowledge, all of the later is not your usual person.
The client of a design project maybe has very different aspirations and requirements for the project and project’s outcome. These may not be aligned with the designer’s idea and motivations. Clients are also likely to bring specialist, expert and inside knowledge, information which general people do not have.
What might be considered essential or a mark of success for one of the stakeholders might not be what the other agrees with or thinks.
From a designer’s perspective is there such as thing as a ‘universal design’ solution that could work for all people? Suzanne Scacca says ‘If you don’t have a clear idea of which age group your audience will attract, then it’s up to you to create a design that’s as universally acceptable as possible.
I have designed this free infographic using the statistics mentioned in this paper. It is freely reusable and copyright free. Please though do not edit or modify it. Please always supply a credit to the infographics source (User design, Illustration and Typesetting) and link to this article.
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